After 1350 AD the Lucknow and parts of Awadh region have been under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, the Nawabs of Awadh, the East India Company and the British Raj. Lucknow has been one of the major centers of First War of Independence, participated actively inIndia's Independence movement, and after Independence has emerged as an important city of North India.
Until 1719, subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor. Saadat Khan also called Burhan-ul-Mulk a Persian adventurer was appointed the Nazim of Awadh in 1722 and he established his court in Faizabad  near Lucknow.
Awadh was known as the granary of India and was important strategically for the control of the Doab, the fertile plain between the Ganga and the Yamuna rivers. It was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Marathas, the British and the Afghans. The third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula fell out with the British after aiding Mir Qasim, the fugitive Nawab of Bengal. He was comprehensively defeated in the Battle of Buxar by the East India Company, after which he was forced to pay heavy penalties and cede parts of his territory. The British appointed a resident in 1773, and over time gained control of more territory and authority in the state. They were disinclined to capture Awadh outright, because that would bring them face to face with the Marathas and the remnants of the Mughal Empire.
Lucknow's rise to growth and fame begins with its elevation as capital of Awadh by Nawab Asaf-Ud-Dowlah. He was a great philanthropist and gave Lucknow a unique and enduring legacy. The architectural contributions of these Awadh rulers include several imposing monuments. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara, and the Roomi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the more lasting contributions by the Nawabs is the syncretic composite culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb.
In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British, and was forced to abdicate. The British then helped Saadat Ali Khan to the throne. Saadat Ali Khan was a puppet king, who in the treaty of 1801 ceded half of Awadh to the British East India Company and also agreed to disband his troops in favor of a hugely expensive, British-run army. This treaty effectively made the state of Awadh a vassal to the British East India Company, though it notionally continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819.
The treaty of 1801 formed an arrangement that was very beneficial to the Company. They were able to use Awadh's vast treasuries, repeatedly digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful revenues while it acted as a buffer state. The Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with pomp and show but with little influence over matters of state. By the mid-nineteenth century, however, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and wanted direct control of Awadh.
In 1856 the East India Company first moved its troops to the border, then annexed the state, which was placed under a chief commissioner - Sir Henry Lawrence. Wajid Ali Shah, the then Nawab, was imprisoned, and then exiled by the Company to Calcutta. In the subsequent Revolt of 1857 his 14-year old son Birjis Qadra son of Begum Hazrat Mahal was crowned ruler, and Sir Henry Lawrence killed in the hostilities. Following the rebellion's defeat, Begum Hazrat Mahal and other rebel leaders obtained asylum in Nepal.
Interior of the Secundra Bagh after the Slaughter of 2,000 Rebels by the 93rd Highlanders and 4th Punjab Regiment. First Attack of Sir Colin Campbell in November 1857, Lucknow. Albumen silver print, by Felice Beato, 1858.
Those company troops who were recruited from the state, along with some of the nobility of the state, were major players in the events of 1857. The rebels took control of Awadh, and it took the British 18 months to reconquer the region, months which included the famous Siege of Lucknow. Oudh was placed back under a chief commissioner, and was governed as a British province. In 1877 the offices of lieutenant-governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh were combined in the same person; and in 1902, when the new name of United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was introduced, the title of chief commissioner was dropped, though Oudh still retained some marks of its former independence.
The province of Awadh (anglicized to Oudh) was annexed by the East India Company in 1856 and placed under the control of a chief commissioner. In the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (also known as theFirst War of Indian Independence and the Indian Mutiny), the garrison based at the Residency in Lucknow was besieged by rebel forces. The famous Siege of Lucknow was relieved first by forces under the command of Sir Henry Havelock and Sir James Outram, followed by a stronger force under Sir Colin Campbell. Today, the ruins of the Residency, and the picturesque Shaheed Smarak offer reminiscences of Lucknow's role in the stirring events of 1857.
The city played an important role in both the First War of Independence and the modern Indian freedom struggle. Whether it was the Lucknow Pact of 1916 or theKhilafat Movement, it brought the citizens on a united platform against the British rule. In the Khilafat Movement Maulana Abdul Bari of Firangi Mahal, Lucknow actively participated and cooperated with Mahatama Gandhi and Maulana Mohammad Ali.
In 1901, after remaining the capital of Oudh since 1775, Lucknow, with a population of 264,049, was merged in the newly formed United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.However, it became the provincial capital in 1920 when the seat of government was moved from Allahabad. Upon Indian independence in 1947, Lucknow became the capital of Uttar Pradesh, the erstwhile United Provinces.
Map of Lucknow in 1857 (NW section)
Map of Lucknow in 1857 (NE section)
Map of Lucknow in 1857 (SW section)
Map of Lucknow in 1857 (SE section)
Map of Lucknow in 1901
Map of Lucknow in 1909
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh in 1903
Geography Lucknow Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D 22 23 7 11 26 9 8 32 14 5 38 21 17 41 25 107 39 27 294 34 26 314 33 26 181 33 24 45 33 19 4 29 12 7 24 7 average max. and min. temperatures in °C precipitation totals in mm source: World Weather Information Service [show]Imperial conversion
Situated in the heart of the great Gangetic plain, Lucknow city is surrounded by its rural towns and villages like the orchard town of Malihabad, historic Kakori, Mohanlal ganj, Gosainganj, Chinhat,Itaunja. On its eastern side lies Barabanki District, on the western side is Unnao District, on the southern side Raebareli District, and on the northern side the Sitapur and Hardoi districts. TheGomti River, the chief geographical feature, meanders through the city, dividing it into the Trans-Gomti and Cis-Gomti regions. Lucknow city is located in the seismic zone III.
Lucknow has a warm humid subtropical climate with cool, dry winters from December to February and dry, hot summers from April to June. The rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September, when Lucknow gets an average rainfall of 1010 mm (40 in) mostly from the south-west monsoonwinds. In winter the maximum temperature is around 21 degrees Celsius and the minimum is in the 3 to 4 degrees Celsius range. Fog is quite common from late December to late January. Summers can be quite hot with temperatures rising to the 40 to 45 degree Celsius range, the average highs being in the high 30's.
Demographics [hide]Lucknow Population Census Pop. %± 1981 1,007,604 — 1991 1,669,204 65.7% 2001 2,245,509 34.5% Est. 2011 3,226,000  43.7% Source: Census of India
Currently the population of Lucknow is more than 3 million.The majority of Lucknow's population includes people from Eastern Uttar Pradesh. However, Bengalis, South Indians and Anglo-Indianshave also settled in Lucknow. Hindus comprise about 77% and Muslims about 20%. There are also small groups of Sikhs, Jains, Christians and Buddhists. As per 2001 census literacy rate of Lucknow is 69.39% (61.22% for females and 76.63% for males).
Lucknow is the political and administrative capital of Uttar Pradesh. The city elects members to the Lok Sabha as well as the Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha (State Assembly). Lucknow has two loksabha Constituencies named Lucknow & Mohanlalganj.
The city is under the jurisdiction of a District Collector, who is an IAS officer. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city. The Collector is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city. The city is administered by the Lucknow Municipal Corporation with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner of Lucknow also called the City Mayor. An Assistant Municipal Commissioner oversees each ward for administrative purposes.
The Lucknow Police is headed by a Inspector General, who is an IPS officer. The Lucknow Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into several police zones and traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Inspector General of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Lucknow Police. The Lucknow Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by Deputy Chief Fire Officers and Divisional Officers. Former Prime Minister A.B.Vajpayee had been member of Parliament for the Lucknow Parliamentary constituency until recently where he has been replaced by Lalji Tandon in elections of 2009.
Lucknow is not only a major market & trading city in Northern India, but is also an emerging hub for producers of goods and services. Being the capital of Uttar Pradesh state, the Government departments and the public sector undertakings are the principal employers of the salaried middle class. Liberalization has created many more opportunities in the business and service sector and self-employed professionals are burgeoning in the city.
Lucknow also provides a good catchment area for the recruitment of quality personnel by information technology companies for the BPO. The city is the headquarters of both the Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) and the Pradeshiya Industrial and Investment Corporation of Uttar Pradesh (PICUP). The Regional office of the Uttar Pradesh State Industries Development Corporation (UPSIDC) is also located here. The other business-promoting institutions that have a presence in Lucknow are the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) andEntrepreneurship Development Institute of India (EDII).
Manufacturing and Processing Hindustan Aeronautics Limited has major operation facilities in Lucknow
Among the bigger manufacturing units, Lucknow has Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Tata Motors, Eveready Industries and Scooters India Limited. Processing industries include milk production, steel-rolling units and LPG bottling.
Lucknow is also famous for Indian Hukha Tobacco Paste or Khamira in local lauguage,manufacturer's exporter of Hukha Tobacco.The city's small-scale and medium-scale industrial units are located in the industrial enclaves of Chinhat, Aishbagh, Talkatora and Amousi.
Real estate is one of the many booming sectors of the economy. There are several malls, residential complexes and business complexes throughout the city. Real estate giants like Parshvanath, DLF, Omaxe, Sahara, Unitech, Ansal API, Emaar MGF are here.
Lucknow is one of the few Indian cities that follows vertical outgrowth plan like Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Gazhiabad. Prominent under-construction buildings include the Signature Tower,Golf City which will have 65 floors, Sahara Hospital, which will have 30 floors, followed by Metro City, Parshvanath Planet and Omaxe Heights, all 25 floors. The city boasts a high property expansion rate. It is expected that city will have a $2.5 billion organised real estate by 2010, highest in North India except the National Capital Region (NCR).
Organic India has its head office in Lucknow.
Traditionally, Lucknow has been a mandi town for mangoes, melons, and grains grown in the surrounding areas. Sugarcane-growing plantations and sugar industries are also in close proximity. This attracted Mohan Meakins Brewery to set up a unit based on molasses in the city. Meakins was incorporated in 1855 and is Asia's first commercial brewery.
Lucknow is famous for its small scale industries that are based on unique styles of embroidery, namely, Chikan and Lakhnawi Zardozi, both of which are significant foreign exchange earners. Chikan has caught the fancy of fashion designers in Bollywood and abroad.
During the period of the Nawabs, kite-making reached a high level of artistry, and is still a small-scale industry. Lucknow has also been an industrial producer of tobacco products like 'Kivam', edible fragrances like 'attars' and handicrafts such as pottery, earthen toys, silver and gold foil work, and bone carving products.
Emerging Businesses Reserve Bank of India, Lucknow
Lucknow, with its excellent educational, commercial, banking and legal infrastructure, is witnessing rapid growth in information technology, banking, retailing, construction and other service sectors. Private coaching institutions for preparing aspirants of competitive exams and services is another business that is flourishing in Lucknow.
Lucknow houses hundreds of established real estate brands and dozens of niche and specialised developers like High-end premium residential projects, Malls, IT parks, Commercial property, SEZs, Plots, Business centres, Multiplexes, Clubs, Banks, Food courts, Entertainment centres and Finance institutions.
All the major public and private sector banks of India, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and foreign banks like Citibank, Standard Chartered Bank, ABN-AMRO and HSBC have their presence in the city. The big oil marketing companies like Indian Oil Corporation, Hindustan Petroleum, Bharat Petroleum, and Reliance have their offices in Lucknow.
Tata Consultancy Services campus, Lucknow
Leading IT companies like TCS and IBM operate in Lucknow. The Ministry of Communications & Information Technology has set up Software Technology Parks of India  in 2001 which is playing an important role to promote IT/ITes Units in the region. Passive Telecom network provider TNG Infratel has its corporate office in lucknow.Insurance companies, both public and private, as well as leading cellular phone companies are present in the city as well.
Currently, biotechnology and information technology are the two focus areas to promote economic development in and around the city. The Ministry of Science and Technology is setting up a biotech park in the city. Lucknow is also one of the selected cities for the Smart City project of STPI, under which IT is being used to promote economic development.
Cityscape Places to see Gateway to Bara Imambara The Chhota Imambara Husainabad Clock Tower Ambedkar Memorial
The Asafi Imambara (popularly known as Bara Imambara), the Chhota Imambara, Residency, and Shah Najaf are monuments of architectural importance at Lucknow. The famous 'Bhul Bhulaiyan' (Labyrinth) is part of Asafi Imambara complex. Some other places of interest are the Picture Gallery, Chattar Manzil, State Museum / Lucknow Zoo, Shaheed Smarak, Dilkusha, Ambedkar Memorial, Planetarium, Baradari and Ram Krishna Math.
The British-built architectural sights in Lucknow include the Vidhan Sabha (State Legislative Assembly), the Clock Tower and the Charbagh Railway Station, with its distinctive domes, arches and pillars. St Joseph's Cathedral in Lucknow is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lucknow. Some of the oldest and best schools in India are also situated in Lucknow such as La Martiniere Lucknow, St. Francis College (1885), Loreto Convent Lucknow, Colvin Taluqdar's College,MBIC, Study Hall, RLB, CMS, LPS, St Fidelis College, Lucknow and Christ Church College.
Lucknow has several well-kept parks that attract the citizenry in large numbers on evenings, holidays and weekends. The bigger parks are Ambedkar Memorial and Lohia park in Gomti Nagar, Swarn Jayanti park and Aurobindo Park in Indiranagar, Dilkusha Park, Begum Hazrat Mahal Park, Globe Park, Mukherjee Phuhaar, Haathi Park, Buddha park, and Neebu Park. The sprawling National Botanical Garden at Sikandarbagh on the banks of Gomti river is also worth visiting.
The city also has a Reserve Forest, Kukrail Crocodile Park (a picnic spot and Gharial rehabilitation centre). Moosa Bagh and Utretia are other popular picnic spots. Natural attractions accessible from Lucknow are Katarnia Ghat, Dudhwa National Park, Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary and Samaspur Bird Sanctuary.
Aminabad, a quaint bazaar like Delhi's Chandni Chowk, is situated in the heart of the city. It is a large shopping centre that caters to a wide variety of consumers. Chowk and Nakhhas are markets in the old Lucknow area where you can get a feel of traditional Lucknow. Some other important shopping centres are Alambagh, Kapoorthala, Indiranagar, Mahanagar and Nishatganj. TheHazratganj area is an upscale shopping market with colonial- style buildings. Interestingly, a popular pastime among the locals is window-shopping in the Hazratganj market. It is popularly referred to inHinglish as Ganjing. The Janpath market, Rovers, Lovers Lane, Mayfair building, Kwality, and Universal book store are some popular landmarks of the area.
Lucknowites are also experiencing the new waves of shopping malls and multiplex culture in India. The first shopping mall-cum-multiplex to open in Lucknow was the East End Mall in Gomti Nagar. Now Lucknow has many Mall-cum-multiplex like Saharaganj (PVR Cinemas), Zee Mall (Fun Republic), Riverside Mall (Inox Theatre) and East End Mall (Wave Cinemas).
Recently, the district administration has decided to give a facelift to Hazratganj, the main commercial area of Lucknow. It will be renovated on the lines of Connaught Place in Delhi, and done as per the recommendations of the famous architect Naseer Munji .
The urban area is spread equally on both sides of the Gomti River. The commercial and residential areas on Cis-Gomti side are Hazratganj, L.D.A. Colony, Alambagh, RDSO Colony (Research Design and Standard Organisation), Charbagh, Aishbagh, Qaiserbagh, Aminabad, Husainganj, Model Houses, Lal Bagh, Golaganj, Wazirganj, Rajendra Nagar, Malviya Nagar, Sarojini Nagar, Aishbagh, Rajajipuram, Haiderganj, Thakurganj, Chowk and Saadatganj.
The residential settlements in the Trans-Gomti area are Nirala Nagar, Aliganj, Daliganj, Mahanagar, Old & New Hyderabad, Nishatganj, Indira Nagar, Manas Enclave (near Kukrail picnic spot), Gomti Nagar and Gomti Nagar Extn., Nilmatha Cantt., Vikas Nagar, Khurram Nagar, Janakipuram and South City (on Raibareli road). Aminabad is the heart of the city and the oldest traditional marketplace after Chowk. It is one of the most crowded places of Lucknow.
Gomati Nagar is inhabited by top bureaucrats and politicians. Most of the resources of the city (as well as those of the UP state) are therefore channelised to this trans-gomati locality, while the other colonies remain grossly neglected.
Lucknow is bravely struggling to retain its old world charm while at the same time acquiring a modern lifestyle. Regarded as one of the finest cities of India, Lucknow represents a culture that combines emotional warmth, a high degree of sophistication, courtesy, and a love for gracious living. The Pehle-Aap (after you) culture, popularised as a tagline for the society of Lucknow, is waning. But a small part of Lucknow's society still possesses such etiquette. This sublime cultural richness famous as Lakhnawi tehzeeb blends the cultures of two communities living side by side for centuries, sharing similar interests and speaking a common language.
Many of the cultural traits and customs peculiar to Lucknow have become living legends today. The credit for this goes to the secular and syncretic traditions of the Nawabs of Awadh, who took a keen interest in every walk of life, and encouraged the traditions to attain a rare degree of sophistication. The Raja Sahib of Mahmudabad, popularly known as Suleiman Mian, is a living example of all the great traditions of this region and has been written about by authors like V.S. Naipul, William Dalrymple and many others. He resides in Mahmudabad House which is in one of the wings of Kaiserbagh, a palace built by Wajid Ali Shah.
Language and poetry
Lucknow is one of the world's great cities for Shiite culture. Two poets, Mir Anis and Mirza Dabeer, became legendary exponents of a unique genre of Shia elegiacal poetry called Marsia centred on Imam Husain's supreme sacrifice in the Battle of Karbala which is commemorated during the annual observance of Muharram.
In recent years the use of Urdu has reduced significantly. Day-to-day transactions in the city are typically performed in Hindi or English. Nevertheless, Lucknowites are still known for their polite and polished way of speaking which is noticed by visitors to this city. The revolutionaryRam Prasad Bismil, who was hanged by the British at Kakori near Lucknow, was largely influenced by poetry and wrote verses under the pen name of "Bismil". The surrounding towns like Kakori, Daryabad, Barabanki, Rudauli and Malihabad produced many eminent poets and littérateurs of Urdu like Mohsin Kakorvi, Majaz, Khumar Barabankvi and Josh Malihabadi. Recently in 2008 which is the 150th year of 'mutiny' of 1857 a novel has been released which uses 1857 as a backdrop. 'Recalcitrance' is the first English novel by a Lucknowite on the 'mutiny' of 1857.
Cuisine Main articles: Awadhi cuisine and Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh
The Awadh region has its own distinct Nawabi style cuisine, with various kinds of biryanis, kebabs and breads. Kebabs are also of different types - Kakori Kebabs, Galawati Kebabs, Shami Kebabs, Boti Kababs, Patili-ke-Kababs, Ghutwa Kababs and Seekh Kababs are among the known varieties.
The city has a range of fine restaurants catering to all tastes and budgets.
Makkhan Malai, 'Malai Ki Gilori' of Ram Asrey (an oldest shop of pure ghee sweets, established in 1805) Chowk , the famous Tundey Kebabs, named after the one-armed chef Haji Murad Ali, and 'Kakori kebabs' are very popular with food lovers.
The Chaat in Lucknow is one of the best in the country. There are quite a few places serving outstanding chaat, like Shukla Chaat and Moti Mahal in Hazratganj, Radhey Lal in Aliganj, Chhappan Bhog in Sadar and Neel Kanth in Gomti Nagar, and famous Jagdish Chaat House in old lucknow Chowk. And among sweets lucknow's rewadi is famous in all INDIA
After a delicious dinner, one can have Paan at any of the innumerable Paan vendors.
Uttar Pradeshi thali withnaan, sultani dal, raita, and shahi paneer.
Kebabs are an important part of Uttar Pradesh's cuisine.
Naan is one of the staple breads of Uttar Pradesh.
The koftah is a popular main dish of Uttar Pradesh.
Raita has its roots in Uttar Pradesh as well.
The samosa is a popular snack from Uttar Pradesh.
Dance, drama and music
Kathak, the classical Indian dance form took shape here. Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, was a great patron and a passionate champion of Kathak. Lachhu Maharaj, Acchchan Maharaj, Shambhu Maharaj and Birju Maharaj have kept this tradition alive.
Lucknow is also the city of eminent Ghazal singer Begum Akhtar. She was a pioneer in Ghazal singing and took this aspect of music to amazing heights. "Ae Mohabbat Tere anjaam pe rona aaya" is one of her best musical renditions of all times.
The Bhatkande music university at Lucknow is named after the great musician Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. People from Sri Lanka, Nepal and other countries come to Bhatkhande to study music or dance.
Bhartendu Academy of Dramatic Arts (BNA), also known as Bhartendu Natya Academy, a Theatre Training institute situated at Gomti Nagar in vikas khand-1, is deemed university and an autonomous organization under Ministry of Culture , Government of Uttar Pradesh, set up in 1975 by the Sangeet Natak Akademy (Government of Uttar Pradesh), and became an independent Drama school in 1977.
Lucknow has given music stars like Naushad Ali, Talat Mehmood, Anup Jalota and Baba Sehgal to the entertainment industry. It is also incidentally the birthplace of British pop star Sir Cliff Richard.
Sports A kite shop in the city
Lucknow has traditionally been a sports-loving city. In the past pehlwani, kabbadi, chess, kite flying,pigeon flying, and cock fighting were popular pastimes. For decades Lucknow hosted the prestigiousSheesh Mahal Cricket Tournament. Today cricket, football, badminton, golf and hockey are among the most popular sports in the city. Gulli Danda has become a benchmark for the youth to achieve.
The city has a good record in modern sports and has produced several national and world-class sporting personalities. Lucknow sports hostel has produced international-level cricketers such asMohammed Kaif, Piyush Chawla, Suresh Raina, Gyanendra Pandey and R. P. Singh. Other famous sports personalities include hockey Olympians K. D. Singh, Mohammed Shahid and Ghaus Mohammad Khan, the tennis player who became the first Indian to reach the quarter finals atWimbledon.
Stadiums K. D. Singh Babu Stadium, Lucknow
The main sports hub is the K. D. Singh Babu Stadiumwhich also has a world-class swimming and indoor games complex. The other stadiums are at Babu Banarsi Das engineering college,Charbagh, Mahanagar, Chowk and Sports College and at Integral University.
The Lucknow Golf Club, on the sprawling greens of La Martinière College, is one of the most famous golf courses in India.
An inspiration for films
Lucknow has been a major influence on the Hindi film industry of India and it would be true to say that without the Lakhnavi touch, Bollywood would not have been what it is today. Many script writers and lyricists hailing from Awadh likeMajrooh Sultanpuri, Kaifi Azmi, Javed Akhtar Ali Raza, Bhagwati Charan Verma, Dr. Kumud Nagar, Dr. Achala Nagar Wajahat Mirza (writer ofMother India and Ganga Jamuna), Amritlal Nagar, Ali Sardar Jafri, K. P. Saxena and music famous music director Naushad Ali (Urdu: نوشاد علی, Hindi: नौशाद अली) (25 December 1919 – 5 May 2006) have enriched Indian Cinema.
Moreover, several famous movies have used Lucknow as their backdrop, such as Shashi Kapoor's Junoon, Muzaffar Ali's Umrao Jaan andGaman, Satyajit Ray's Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Ismail Merchant's Shakespeare Wallah was also partly shot in Lucknow.
Bahu Begum, Mehboob ki Mehndi, Mere Hazoor, Mere Mehboob, Chaudhvin Ka Chand, Pakeezah, Main Meri Patni Aur Woh, Saher, Anwarand many more films have either been shot in Lucknow or have Lakhnavi backdrops. In the movie Gadar: Ek Prem Katha Lucknow has been used to depict Pakistan. The Lal Pul has been used.
Infrastructure Education and Research See also: List of educational institutes in Lucknow IIM Lucknow
Lucknow is a hub of education and research with many premier institutions. Schools and higher educational institutions in Lucknow are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the UP government, or private organizations.
Higher education institutions in the city include eight universities:University of Lucknow, UPTU,Lucknow, RMLNLU, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Amity University, and Integral University; medical institutes like Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences(SGPGIMS), Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University (CSMMU), Sahara Hospital, Apollo Hospital and ERA's Lucknow Medical College; management institutes like IIM Lucknow, Along with Jaipuria Institute of Management, Institute of Management Science at the University of Lucknow; and government engineering college IET Lucknow.;and private college BBD Lucknow,Saroj engineering college,Sri Ramswarup engineering college, GICET Lucknow, NIEC Lucknow, Sherwood engineering college.
Lucknow boasts of national importance as a prominent place for Scientific Research, especially in the emerging field of Modern Biosciences. Four institutions affiliated to the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research are located here : the National Botanic Research Institute, the Central Drug Research Institute, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research and Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.
Transport Auto Rickshaws
The available multiple modes of public transport in the city are taxis, city buses, cycle rickshaws,auto rickshaws and CNG Buses. CNG has been introduced recently as an auto fuel to keep the air pollution in control. The city bus service is run by Lucknow Mahanagar Parivahan Sewa. a division of Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC)
From Hazratganj intersection in Lucknow city, four Indian National Highways originate, viz, NH-24 to Delhi, NH-25 to Shivpuri, Jhansi (M.P. Border), NH-56 to Varanasi and NH-28 to Mokama (Bihar). The major bus terminus is Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar bus station at Alambagh. It has all modern facilities and is the main inter and intrastate terminal. Another important bus station is atQaiserbagh. Earlier, another bus terminus operated at Charbagh, directly in front of the main railway station, but has now been reestablished as a city bus depot. The move was taken to remove congestion in front of the railway station.
Charbagh Railway Station at Lucknow
The city is served by several Railway stations at different parts of the city. The main railway station is Lucknow Railway Station at Charbagh. It has an imposing structure built in 1923. The main terminal belongs to Northern Railway (NR) (station code: LKO) division of Indian Railways and the second terminal is run by the North Eastern Railway (NER) (Station Code: LJN). Lucknow is a major junction with links to all major cities of the state and country such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata,Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru. Ahmedabad, Pune, Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Jaipur and many more. Lucknow has a further thirteen railway stations viz. Alamnagar, Malhaur, Utretia, Transport Nagar, Dilkhusha, Gomti Nagar, Badshahnagar, Manak Nagar, Amausi, Aishbagh junction, Lucknow City, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Now meter gauge services originate from Aishbagh and connect to Lucknow city, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Except Mohibullapur all the stations are also connected to Broad gauge. All the stations are within city limits and are well connected with each other via road networks and public road transport. Other suburban stations include Bakshi Ka Talaband Kakori.
Muniyappa, minister of state for railways, has carried out an inspection of Charbagh station accompanied with senior officials of railways. The minister has promised to take up the matter of platform extension at Charbagh with railway minister and to also get funds allocated to Lucknow for the same. The Amausi International Airport serves as the city's main airport and is located about 20 km from the city center. Lucknow is directly connected by air with New Delhi, Patna, Kolkata, Mumbai and other major Indian cities. Oman Air,Cosmo Air,FlyDubai,Saudi Airlines and Indigo Air and many more international airlines that are successfully operating direct international flights from Lucknow to international destinations & vice versa. International destinations include London, Dubai, Jeddah, Riyadh, Muscat, Sharjah, Bangkok, Singapore and Hong Kong. During Haj special flights are also operated from Lucknow. Plans for high capacity mass transit system, The Lucknow Metro rail Services have been finalised. Delhi Metro rail (DMRC) is preparing plans for its constructions.
Lucknow has historically been a major center of journalism. The National Herald, the newspaper started by India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru before World War II was published from Lucknow and edited by Manikonda Chalapathi Rau.
The prominent English dailies of the city are The Times of India, The Hindustan Times, The Pioneerand Indian Express. Several daily newspapers in Hindi, Urdu, and English are published in the city. Among the Hindi papers are State Panther,Swatantra Bharat, Dainik Jagran,Amar Ujala,Dainik Hindustan,Rashtriya Sahara,Jansatta and I Next. The main Urdu papers are Jayeza Daily, Rashtriya Sahara, Sahafat, Qaumi Khabrein and Aag.
The Press Trust of India and United News of India have their offices in the city and all major newspapers of the country have their correspondents and stringers in Lucknow.
One of the earliest stations of All India Radio has been operational in Lucknow for quite some time.
FM radio transmission started in Lucknow in 2000, and the city today has following FM radio stations.
- Radio City 91.1 MHz
- Red FM 93.5 MHz
- Radio Mirchi 98.3 MHz
- AIR FM Rainbow 100.7 MHz
- Gyan Vani 105.6 MHz (Educational)
The city has broadband internet connectivity and video conferencing facilities. Major players like BSNL, Bharti Airtel, Reliance Communications,Tata Communications & STPI, have a wide infrastructure to provide broadband Internet Bandwidth to home users, corporates etc.